Scarry, a professor of English and American Literature and Language at Harvard, proposed that electromagnetic interference, also referred to as "High Intensity Radiated Fields" (HIRF), could have been the cause of the TWA 800 crash, specifically energy emitted from a U.S. military craft. As for the explosive residue found on the wreckage—well, while the NTSB can’t be 100% sure, it strongly believes it either came from contamination when the aircraft was used during the Gulf War or, most likely, from an explosive-detection dog-training exercise conducted just a few weeks before the crash. He believed that fragments from a large meteoroid exploded in close proximity to the aircraft shortly after penetrating the earth’s atmosphere and proposed that the mysterious streak of light many witnessed was its entry path.  Salinger said "he was basing the claims on information he saw in a document given to him six weeks ago by someone in French Intelligence with close contacts to U.S. officials", but refused to name his source.  In April 1999, both were convicted of stealing evidence from civil aircraft wreckage, and were sentenced to probation (Stacey had previously pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor in the case).  The NTSB found that the probable cause of the crash of TWA Flight 800 was an explosion of flammable fuel/air vapors in a fuel tank, most likely from a short circuit. It eventually departed in dusk conditions at 8:19 p.m. [non-primary source needed] Lahr sought documentation and data denied to him through previous FOIA requests that the NTSB and CIA used for their calculations of the zoom climb, which was used to produce the CIA animation. Trans World Airlines Flight 800 (TWA 800) was a Boeing 747-100 that exploded and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York, on July 17, 1996, at about 8:31 p.m. EDT, 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport on a scheduled international passenger flight to Rome, with a stopover in Paris. There were 212 passengers and crew members on board. Late spring sunset at JFK. , While investigators from the NTSB arrived on scene the following day,:313 many witnesses to the accident had seen a "streak of light" that was usually described as ascending,:230 moving to a point where a large fireball appeared. According to the report, the most probable cause was ignition of a flammable fuel/air mixture in the center wing fuel tank.  However, they also commended the NTSB staff, management and board members for their cooperation during the investigation, and stated that "The fact the media has put and other groups continue to bring pressure on the board, we find it very comforting that the focus was not changed due to these forces. Its fiery debris rained down into the Atlantic Ocean, just outside East Moriches, New York. 1996 Boeing 747-400F aircraft for Sale in United States.  Later that year, The New York Review of Books published a series of letters between Scarry and NTSB Chairman James Hall discussing the possibility of HIRF being causal to the accident, and what steps the NTSB was taking in its investigation to determine if it was a factor. Then again, witnesses aren’t the most reliable source, which is why the missile theory can’t be substantiated, either. If the zoom climb never happened then they've got to find out what the eyewitnesses saw and the only logical conclusion there is that they saw a missile. Search other aircraft for sale like this at www.globalplanesearch.com Plane & Pilot Survey: Pilots and Politics, Accident Brief: Piper PA28R Crash In Georgia. (Cropped detail from photograph by Burmarrad via JetPhotos.net) 17 July 1996, 8:31 p.m., Eastern Daylight Time: Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, FAA registration N93119, was enroute from New York to Paris with 212 passengers and 18 crewmembers persons aboard, and … Boeing 747 – szerokokadłubowy samolot pasażerski przeznaczony do lotów dalekiego zasięgu, produkowany przez Boeing Company, potocznie nazywany Jumbo Jet – ustępując Airbusowi A380 i An-225 jest jednym z największych samolotów odrzutowych na świecie, mogącym zabrać na pokład, w zależności od wersji i konfiguracji, od 366 do 660 pasażerów. TWA 800, a Boeing 747-131, was a scheduled international passenger flight from New York City, New York to Rome, Italy, with a stopover in Paris, France. ", William S. Donaldson, a retired Naval officer, formed the Associated Retired Aviation Professionals (ARAP) to investigate the TWA 800 crash. , The NTSB determined the locations and appearance of the substance found on the seatbacks was consistent with adhesive used in the construction of the seats, and additional laboratory testing by NASA identified the substance as being consistent with those adhesives (results which Sanders disputed).:118. Katastrofa lotnicza samolotu Trans World Airlines Lot Numer 800 – wypadek lotniczy z udziałem samolotu Boeinga 747-131, która miała miejsce 17 lipca 1996 około 20:31 w pobliżu Long Island.Zginęło w niej 212 pasażerów i 18 członków załogi. Uvođenjem Airbus A380 u redovni promet 25. listopada 2007. After introducing the 707 in October 1958, Pan Am wanted a jet 2½ times its size, to reduce its seat cost by 30% to democratize air travel. :62 In one of the largest diver-assisted salvage operations ever conducted, over 95 percent of the airplane wreckage was eventually recovered. There were 212 passengers and crew members on board. , Donaldson received support and funding from the advocacy group Accuracy in Media, which promoted his views. Plane and Pilot expands upon the vast base of knowledge and experience from aviation’s most reputable influencers to inspire, educate, entertain and inform. " Eyewitness, debris field, metallurgical, and victim injury evidence were all cited by Donaldson as proof of the missile-attack scenario. This aircraft was destroyed by a midair explosion over Long Island. :1 Of the 230 passengers and crew on board, no survivors were found, making TWA 800 the second-deadliest aircraft accident in the United States at that time. Boeing 747 gubi status najvećeg putničkog zrakoplova. , Although raising an interesting possibility, other scientists dismissed this theory due to the extremely low probability of a bolide's intersecting the aircraft's flight path at precisely the required moment. , After the adoption of the final report, Scarry published another article in the New York Review of Books titled "TWA 800 and Electromagnetic Interference: Work Already Completed and Work that Still Needs to be Done". The Top 10 Planes Of All Time: WARNING: This List Goes To 11. There have been several fatal events involving in-flight breakups, including the 1996 event involving TWA Flight 800 and a November 2001 fatal event involving an American Airlines Airbus A300 over New York City. Philippine Airlines Flight 434, sometimes referred to as PAL434 or PR434, was a flight on December 11, 1994 from Cebu to Tokyo on a Boeing 747-283B that was seriously damaged by a bomb, killing one passenger and damaging vital control systems. The flight was scheduled to depart JFK International Airport for Paris’ Charles de Gaulle Airport at 7 p.m. EDT but was delayed over an hour due to issues with ground equipment and a problem matching luggage to one of the passengers. A Boeing 747-131 passenger plane, registered N93119, was destroyed in an accident 13 km S off East Moriches, NY, United States of America.  While praising the initial research done by the NTSB into HIRFs, she also stated that much more additional research was needed. The NTSB was unable to conclusively determine the source of those residues. The airplane operated on a flight from New York-John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY (JFK) to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG).  Donaldson believed that the Clinton Administration wanted to hide the actual cause of the crash for political reasons, specifically the upcoming presidential elections. It didn’t help that, at the time, the country was in a high state of alert after a series of terrorism-related events. Further dampening the NTSB’s findings, a problem with one of the fuel quantity probes would have needed to exist in order for them to be conclusive, yet all of the probes ultimately passed their tests—including the one with the high reading. Flight 800 wreckage recovered and reconstructed. He stated he had proof that TWA 800 was shot down by friendly fire, and the incident was being covered up by the government. :262 Consequently, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) initiated a parallel criminal investigation alongside the NTSB's accident investigation. Are you an aviation enthusiast or pilot? They dubbed it "The TWA 800 Project". To prevent further incidents, the FAA issued safety changes to the fuel pumps and wiring of all Boeing aircraft with center fuel tanks. ", On August 31, 2006, the District Court issued an initial ruling that the evidence submitted by Lahr as justification for his FOIA lawsuit was "sufficient for the plaintiff to proceed based on his claim that the government acted improperly," and that Lahr should be granted access to some, but not all, of the documents he was seeking, based on the FOIA statutes and case law. A fuel explosion would radiate damage in all directions." Samolot o znakach rejestracyjnych N93119 został wyprodukowany w 1971 roku i był w tamtym czasie jedną z najstarszych wciąż … Their petition was based on eyewitness accounts, radar evidence indicating a possible missile and claims of evidence tampering.  In 1997 Sanders' published the book The Downing of TWA Flight 800, in which he proposed that TWA 800 had been downed by a missile, and that a government cover-up had taken place so as to not panic the public. China Airlines Flight 611 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (now Taoyuan International Airport) in Taiwan to Hong Kong International Airport in Hong Kong.On 25 May 2002, the Boeing 747-209B operating the route disintegrated in mid-air and crashed into the Taiwan Strait, 23 nautical miles (26 mi; 43 km) northeast of the … About 12 minutes into the flight, an explosion occurred, followed by several others.  When asked for his reasons for seeking this documents, Lahr stated "I believe that I could show that the zoom climb never happened. ", The IAMAW criticized the accuracy of the "Tag database" used to document the recovered wreckage and the reliability of the witness statements. Upon being handed this verdict by the court, the agencies involved claimed the documents had been "lost" and could not be located, according to the plaintiff. Photo taken one month before the explosion of FLT 800. It was on its way to Rome via a stop in Paris. Kai A. Hortmann 19,415,322 views TWA Flight 800 data, physical and observational, that are absent in official reports suggest that the crash of Trans World Airlines Flight 800 (TWA 800) was due to causes other than those determined by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). This Boeing 747 131 was the aircraft that flew the ill-fated flight TW800 from New York to Rome via Paris on 17 July 1996. , Donaldson disputed the CWT fuel-air vapor explosion scenario, stating that "In the history of aviation, there has never been an in-flight explosion in any Boeing airliner of a Jet-A kerosene fuel vapor/air mixture in any tank, caused by mechanical failure. There were no survivors. , As an invited party to the NTSB investigation, the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAMAW) submitted a report into the public docket. While it’s the most benign theory, it wasn’t a meteoroid. This was the 26th fatal event involving the Boeing 747. The airplane was on a regularly scheduled flight to Paris, France. :65 Recovered wreckage was transported by boat to shore and then by truck to leased hangar space at the former Grumman Aircraft facility in Calverton, New York, for storage, examination, and reconstruction.:63. Ultimately, the NTSB was unable to determine the exact source of explosive residues found on the wreckage. The film highlights extensive eyewitness interviews, with many interviewees directly objecting to publicly described versions of their own descriptions of events. The bombing was a test run of the unsuccessful Bojinka terrorist attacks.The Boeing 747 (tail number EI-BWF) was flying the second leg of a … By Desiree Kocis Updated September 10, 2019 Save Article. The investigation was then continued by the NTSB, which released its findings on August 23, 2000. International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (September 1983) alternative theories, "TWA Flight 800 documentary hints at crash cover-up", "Aircraft Accident Report: In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean Trans World Airlines Flight 800", "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-131 N93119 East Moriches, NY", "Aircraft Accident Report: In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean Trans World Airlines Flight 800 (Appendices)", "NTSB Board Meeting on TWA 800 August 22, 2000, Morning Session", "Source: Traces of 2nd explosive found in TWA debris", Flight Safety Foundation: The Laura Taber Barbour Air Safety Award, "TWA Flight 800: The Impossible Zoom Climb", International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers: Analysis and Recommendations Regarding T.W.A. According to the FAA, the average age of Boeing 747-200 and 747-300 models in U.S. airline fleets at the time of this event was 24 years. He authored the "Interim Report on the Crash of TWA Flight 800 and the Actions of the NTSB and the FBI" (the "Donaldson Report"), which was released on July 17, 1998, two years before the NTSB's Final Report.  Donaldson acknowledged James Sanders' theory of an accidental shoot-down, and did not rule out U.S. Navy involvement; however, he viewed circumstantial evidence of a terrorist attack "more compelling". America’s owner-flown aircraft enthusiasts and active-pilot resource, delivered to your inbox! Trans World Airlines’ Boeing 747-131 N93119 at London Gatwick Airport. Offered is an original, historic, & collectible old newspaper: LOS ANGELES TIMES, July 18, 1996 * TWA Flight 800 explosion tragedy * Boeing 747-100 airplane - … Later, with the information provided by Sanders, the Riverside Press-Enterprise published a series of articles alleging that the substance was consistent with unexpended rocket fuel from a missile that struck TWA 800. Air crash investigation google images music. Boeing 747 crashes immediately after takeoff what really happened to national airlines flight 102. At about 20:31 EDT, on July 17, 1996, about 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), TWA 800 exploded and then crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. In this report the IAMAW disputed the NTSB's sequencing study, and proposed a breakup sequence that started on the lower left side of the airplane, when a high-pressure event "unzipped" the fuselage. The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. KLM 747 Extreme Jet Blast blowing People away at Maho Beach, St. Maarten - 2014-01-14 - Duration: 1:46. Aircraft: Boeing 747, registration: N93119 Injuries: 230 Fatal.  The IAMAW wrote that "a major event may have occurred on the left side of the aircraft. The airplane operated on a flight from New York-John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY (JFK) to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG). That said, 16 miles were never recovered, and the offending segment could be among those wires. ", Another proponent of the U.S. Navy shootdown theory and prominent critic of the zoom climb scenario was H. Ray Lahr, a retired United Airlines pilot. :3 There was intense public interest in these witness reports and much speculation that the reported streak of light was from a missile that had struck TWA 800, causing the airplane to explode. Explosion test done to a B741.  Other possible causes, a terrorist missile strike or an on-board bomb, have not produced supporting evidence.  NTSB Vice chairman Bob Francis was quoted as saying "He was an idiot, he didn't know what he was talking about, and he was totally irresponsible. Several indicators of electrical anomalies were noted prior to the explosion, backing the NTSB’s findings. The energy source of the spark igniting the explosion was never able to be conclusively determined, but according to the report, a short circuit outside the tank most likely allowed infiltration of voltage through wiring of the fuel quantity indication system. On December 5, 1997, federal prosecutors charged Sanders, his wife Elizabeth, and Stacey with theft of government property.  Scarry criticized what she felt was a bias in the investigation to the "meticulous" detailing of events inside the airplane, while not fully exploring the electromagnetic environment outside the airplane. On July 17, 1996, TWA Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131 with 230 passengers and crew on board, exploded mid-air shortly after takeoff. , Salinger's previous position as White House Press Secretary, as well as longtime correspondent for ABC News, initially gave credence to his statements, transforming them from "internet conspiracies" into the mainstream. Boeing Company – amerykański koncern lotniczy, zbrojeniowy i kosmiczny z siedzibą w Chicago.Dwa najważniejsze działy stanowią: Boeing Commercial Airplanes – największy producent samolotów pasażerskich na świecie z siedzibą w Renton (); główne zakłady znajdują się w Everett (Waszyngton) (modele 747, 767, 777 i 787 Dreamliner), 60 km na północ od Seattle, oraz w … The vapor in the fuel tank could have ignited due to the searing heat produced by the bolide's high velocity. Additionally, the FBI interviewed 755 witnesses, with hundreds of them claiming to have seen a “streak of light,” similar to a flare, ascend from the ground to the aircraft’s location in the sky just prior to the explosion. , On April 9, 1998, Elaine Scarry's article in The New York Review of Books, titled "The Fall of TWA 800: " and that "the CWT exploded, but as a result of the airplane's breakup, and was not the initial event. Then, in 2001, Thai Airways Flight 114, a Boeing 737-400, was destroyed by a center wing tank explosion prior to boarding, resulting in a crew fatality. Sep 6, 2017 - July 17, 1996 - Transnational World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800 Explosion: a Boeing 747-131 jetliner, took off from John F. Kennedy airport and gradually ascended along the Long Island shore. TWA 747 explodes off Long Island. Some of the possibilities considered were contamination from the aircraft's use in 1991 transporting troops during the Gulf War or its possible use in a dog-training explosive detection exercise about one month before the accident;:258–259 however, the lack of any other corroborating evidence associated with a high-energy explosion led the NTSB to conclude that "the in-flight breakup of TWA flight 800 was not initiated by a bomb or missile strike". Trans World Airlines’ Boeing 747-131 N93119 at London Gatwick Airport. , A theory was posited in 1997 by Michael Davis, an American amateur geologist, that a bolide exploded near the airplane. " They concluded that "The causes and circumstances that contributed directly to the accident are unknown.  In 1999, James Sanders authored a second book, Altered Evidence. Davis proposed that the mysterious streak observed just before the explosion was the meteoroid's entry path, moments before it blew apart. In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner. :259, Meanwhile, TWA chief 747 pilot Robert Terrell Stacey, who was participating in the official investigation as a TWA representative, became convinced that a reddish-brown substance observed on the backs of recovered passenger seats was suspicious, and possibly indicative of explosive residue or rocket fuel. In it, Donaldson stated that TWA 800 was struck by two missiles, fired from the water, most likely as a terrorist attack, and subsequently the FBI and NTSB conspired to cover up this fact due to political pressure. © 2020 Madavor Media, LLC.  The IAMAW strongly criticized the FBI's conduct during the investigation, including the undocumented removal by FBI agents of wreckage from the hangar where it was stored. See more ideas about Commercial aircraft, Boeing 747, Boeing.  While investigators from the FBI viewed these positive tests as strong indications of a criminal act, the NTSB was more cautious, noting the lack of any patterns on the recovered wreckage characteristic of an explosion. As such, the most probable cause is the one cited by the NTSB, especially given that this isn’t the only center fuel tank explosion in a Boeing aircraft. At least one of the resulting pieces of the exploding meteoroid could have penetrated the fuselage and ripped through the almost empty central wing tank, destroying the wing's structural integrity before exiting the other side. Perhaps the last photo taken of N93119. A Boeing 747-131 passenger plane, registered N93119, was destroyed in an accident 13 km S off East Moriches, NY, United States of America. Other data appear to fit the hypothesis; the sequence of multiple sonic booms heard by witnesses onshore could be explained by the explosion and subsequent scattering of the heavier bolide remnants; the estimated 200 holes in the fuselage (cited in FBI report) could be indicative of metal cut by objects traveling at extremely high speed. Prof: Mahendra Raghubeer FLT 383 Mid-Air Explosion of TWA Flight 800 On July 17 th, 1996 a Boeing 747-131, tail registration number N93119 operated by Trans World Airlines traveling from John F. Kennedy Airport with a stopover at Paris-Charles de Mahendra Raghubeer FLT 383 Mid-Air Explosion of TWA Flight 800 On July 17 th, 1996 a Boeing 747-131, tail The airplane operated on a flight from New York-John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY (JFK) to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG). " , Scarry has since written about Swissair Flight 111 and EgyptAir Flight 990 crashes in connection with electromagnetic radiation. Background. A short circuit causing a fuel explosion was determined to be the cause. Despite initial concerns, on November 18, 1997, the FBI concluded that the incident wasn’t a result of terrorist activity. Boeing 747, često zvan Jumbo Jet, najprepoznatljiviji je zrakoplov današnjice i dugo jedan od najvećih komercijalnih putničkih zrakoplova trenutno u upotrebi. According to the naysayers, the only way an airliner could explode mid-air like that was as the result of either a terrorist attack or a military training exercise gone awry. The Possibility of Electromagnetic Interference", was published. Flight 800, "U.S. investigators will not reopen TWA Flight 800 crash probe", "Salinger's Accusations About TWA Flight 800 Resurface in New Documentary", "New Documentary Fails To Prove That TWA Flight 800 Was Hit By A Missile", "NTSB Denies Petition on 1996 Crash of TWA Flight 800", "Skeptoid #99: Reassembling TWA Flight 800", Mass murder of German POWs after World War II (1940s), Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden, Free energy suppression conspiracy theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=TWA_Flight_800_conspiracy_theories&oldid=984938069, Conspiracy theories involving aviation incidents, Aviation accident investigations with disputed causes, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Articles that may contain original research from September 2007, All articles that may contain original research, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 00:18. :4 The main wreckage was found scattered on the ocean floor in an area about 4 miles long by 3 1/2 miles wide. According to the FAA, the average age of Boeing 747-200 and 747-300 models in U.S. airline fleets at the time of this event was 24 years. Working with journalist James Sanders, and Sanders' wife Elizabeth, a TWA flight attendant, he removed items from the wreckage reconstruction site, specifically the samples of seat fabric as well as documents related to the investigation. There were 212 passengers and crew members on board. Contact Clarantha Sirimanne today for more details! After takeoff, the pilots were issued a series of altitude and directional changes by ATC. While the NTSB’s findings appeared reasonable on the surface, the public wasn’t convinced, and many airline pilots scoffed.  Donaldson concluded his report with the request that Congress hold Congressional hearings into the crash and/or request that the Justice Department appoint an Independent Counsel to investigate (neither of which happened). TWA 800. Their last communication was with Boston Center, occurring at 8:30 p.m., confirming a climb to one- five-thousand. Less than a minute later, the plane exploded. He died in 2001; the ARAP Web site is still active. Photo of The Week: Our Christmas List: A $72,000 Mach .84 Jet.  Scarry focused on a U.S. Navy P-3 Orion close to TWA 800 as being a possible source of electromagnetic interference and cause of the CWT explosion on TWA 800. It also highlights interviews with investigators who had been involved in the original inquest, six of whom had filed a petition to reopen the probe. One final theory, and one that’s literally out of this world, was posed by an amateur geologist in 1997.  However, under scrutiny, his allegations, and the reports issued with his collaborators, became the subject of much criticism in the media. July 17, 1996 Web posted at: 11:00 p.m. EDT. There were 212 passengers and crew members on board. Become a member and get exclusive access to articles, contests and more! This edition of Mysteries of Flight examines what happened to the Boeing 747 back in 1996. Lahr, recipient of the Laura Taber Barbour Air Safety Award by the Flight Safety Foundation in 1994, filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) suit in U.S. District Court, Central District of California, Western Division, on November 6, 2003, against the NTSB and CIA. A bolide is a large meteoroid, explosively torn apart as it hits the atmosphere.  The Sanders' defense attorney Bruce Maffeo described the prosecution as "extremely vindictive" and insisted that the couple had a First Amendment right to take the sample and crash-related documents to expose a cover-up. Plane and Pilot builds on more than 50 years of serving pilots and owners of aircraft with the goal of empowering our readers to improve their knowledge and enthusiasm for aviation. For one, witnesses claim that the streak of light started at ground level, not outer space. - Photo taken at New York - John F. Kennedy International (Idlewild) (JFK / KJFK) in New York, USA in June, 1996. For example, about 10 minutes after takeoff, the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) captured the flight’s captain, Ralph Kevorkian, voicing concerns over “a crazy fuel flow indicator on number four.” The fuel quantity probe read 640 pounds, significantly higher than the 300 pounds recorded by the ground refueler. "The damage to the CWT seems to start at the center and work its way forward along a discernible path. On July 17, 1996, TWA Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131 with 230 passengers and crew on board, exploded mid-air shortly after takeoff.  While the court reaffirmed its previous ruling that Lahr had provided proof "sufficient to suggest that the government acted improperly", it also clarified that this "conclusion is based on a characterization of the evidence in a light most favorable to the plaintiff, but does not reflect or constitute any finding by the court. On June 19, 2013, a documentary presented evidence the government investigation into the crash was a cover-up and made news headlines with statements from six members of the original investigation team, now retired, who also filed a petition to reopen the probe. Sign up for our newsletter, full of tips, reviews and more! Weather in the area was calm, with light wind, scattered clouds and visibility greater than 10 nm. A Boeing 747-131 passenger plane, registered N93119, was destroyed in an accident 13 km S off East Moriches, NY, United States of America. A Boeing 747-131 passenger plane, registered N93119, was destroyed in an accident 13 km S off East Moriches, NY, United States of America. One of the first widely reported criticisms of the official investigation was by former reporter Pierre Salinger, who held a press conference in Cannes, France on November 7, 1996. An alternative explanation posits that the crash was due to a U.S. Navy missile test gone awry. The NTSB also claimed that cracked insulation on electrical wires likely contributed to the spark that ignited the explosion, but no cracks were found on the 159 miles of electrical wire recovered from the scene. A test run on the probe by the NTSB demonstrated that applying power to one of the wires leading into the gauge would result in a change of several hundred pounds to the digital display.
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